Schema Development

A schema is a concept typically associated with cognitive psychology. Arguably it has some roots in (or at least is similar to) the work of Piaget. Piaget (1971) makes a distinction between two types of knowledge development: assimilation and accommodation. He describes the process of assimilation as that of gradually integrating new knowledge into a learner’s existing knowledge base. In general, assimilation involves making linkages between old knowledge and new knowledge. Multiple exposures over time facilitate the assimilation process. Accommodation is a more radical change in knowledge. It involves changing existing knowledge structures as opposed to simply adding information to them. For accommodation, interaction with content must challenge existing perceptions.

Schema theory provides another perspective on the nature of learning. Roughly speaking, schemata are the packets in which knowledge is organized and stored (Anderson, 1995; Bransford & Johnson, 1973; Winograd, 1975). Initially, schemata were thought of as idiosyncratic mental representations of phenomena by individuals. Currently, there is some agreement that schemata are shared by and created by groups as they interact around a common topic (McVee, Dunsmore, & Gavelek, 2005).

Three types of schema development are typically identified: (1) accretion, (2) tuning, and (3) restructuring. Accretion and tuning refer to the gradual accumulation or addition of knowledge over time and the expression of that knowledge in more parsimonious packages. In a sense, accretion and tuning are akin to Piaget’s notion of assimilation. Restructuring involves reorganizing knowledge so that it might produce new insights. In a sense, restructuring is akin to Piaget’s notion of accommodation.


Folksonomies: knowledge cognition learning schema

/technology and computing/software/databases (0.595602)
/travel/tourist facilities/bed and breakfast (0.342099)
/society (0.339286)

knowledge (0.992418 (positive:0.216072)), Piaget’s notion (0.899449 (negative:-0.498449)), schema development (0.897326 (negative:-0.279122)), assimilation (0.853706 (negative:-0.197860)), simply adding information (0.810836 (neutral:0.000000)), idiosyncratic mental representations (0.801716 (negative:-0.278105)), new knowledge (0.766864 (positive:0.396068)), assimilation process (0.702513 (neutral:0.000000)), Development A schema (0.636230 (negative:-0.279122)), Schema theory (0.593420 (positive:0.320550)), cognitive psychology (0.577354 (negative:-0.279122)), Multiple exposures (0.555125 (neutral:0.000000)), knowledge base (0.548359 (positive:0.396068)), existing perceptions (0.546612 (neutral:0.000000)), old knowledge (0.544991 (neutral:0.000000)), radical change (0.544077 (positive:0.542217)), knowledge structures (0.535608 (neutral:0.000000)), knowledge development (0.534426 (positive:0.401764)), gradual accumulation (0.529088 (positive:0.425160)), parsimonious packages (0.527312 (positive:0.425160)), common topic (0.508022 (neutral:0.000000)), new insights (0.501321 (negative:-0.215001)), schemata (0.499970 (negative:-0.278105)), accommodation (0.483302 (negative:-0.025624)), accretion (0.458583 (negative:-0.122871)), restructuring (0.343953 (negative:-0.448868)), amp (0.338276 (neutral:0.000000)), types (0.326682 (positive:0.401764)), time (0.323207 (positive:0.425160)), sense (0.315497 (neutral:0.000000))

Piaget:Person (0.926857 (positive:0.085737)), knowledge base:FieldTerminology (0.667807 (positive:0.396069)), Dunsmore:Company (0.306005 (neutral:0.000000)), Bransford:Company (0.294401 (neutral:0.000000)), Anderson:Person (0.270614 (neutral:0.000000)), Gavelek:Person (0.261779 (neutral:0.000000)), Winograd:Person (0.260533 (neutral:0.000000)), Johnson:Person (0.246963 (neutral:0.000000))

Psychology (0.948447): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc
Cognition (0.862085): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc
Developmental psychology (0.841731): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc
Cognitive science (0.811994): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc
Knowledge management (0.686794): dbpedia | freebase
Learning (0.679980): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc
Philosophy of science (0.659581): dbpedia | freebase
Perception (0.620449): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc
Concept (0.569284): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc
Mind (0.559534): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc
Frederic Bartlett (0.551269): dbpedia | freebase | yago
Cognitive psychology (0.548168): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc
Concepts in metaphysics (0.505858): dbpedia

 The Art And Science Of Teaching: A Comprehensive Framework For Effective Instruction
Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Marzano, Robert J. (2007), The Art And Science Of Teaching: A Comprehensive Framework For Effective Instruction, ASCD, Retrieved on 2016-09-08
Folksonomies: teaching