Metaphors for Understanding Science


Folksonomies: science metaphors understanding

Memes

02 JUN 2015

 Metaphor in Science

Metaphor in science, Boyd suggests, is a version of the everyday process in which a metaphor is pressed into service to fill gaps in a language’s vocabulary, like rabbit ears to refer to the antennas that used to sprout from the tops of television sets. Scientists constantly discover new entities that lack an English name, so they often tap a metaphor to supply the needed label: selection in evolution, kettle pond in geology, linkage in genetics, and so on. But they aren’t shackled by the...
  1  notes
 
24 JAN 2015

 Intellectual Exploration as Geographical Exploration

My own field of physics is passing today through a phase of exuberant freedom, a phase of passionate prodigality. Sometimes as I listen to the conversation of my young colleagues at Princeton, I feel as if I am lost in a rain forest, with insects and birds and flowers growing all around me in intricate profusion, growing too abundantly for my sixty-year-old brain to comprehend. But the young people are at home in the rain forest and walk confidently along trails which to me are almost invisib...
Folksonomies: science metaphor physics
Folksonomies: science metaphor physics
  1  notes
 
24 JAN 2014

 Ada Lovelace Describes the Analytical Engine

The distinctive characteristic of the Analytical Engine, and that which has rendered it possible to endow mechanism with such extensive faculties as bid fair to make this engine the executive right-hand of abstract algebra, is the introduction into it of the principle which Jacquard devised for regulating, by means of punched cards, the most complicated pattems in the fabrication of brocaded stuffs. It is in this that the distinction between the two engines lies. Nothing of the sort exists in...
  2  notes

It is a loom, but for weaving equations.

29 DEC 2013

 Memetic Sex

There are many similarities between genes and memes. Just as genes transmitted during sexual intercourse in the biosphere, so are ideas trans¬ mitted during social intercourse in the mental realm, or ideosphere. [...] The memetic realm also hahas some important differences from the genetic realm. Memes combine, recombine, mutate, and reproduce much more flexly and rapidly than genes do. This is one way that genetic sex does not map completely to memetic sex. For example, the memetic count...
  1  notes

Many of the concepts in genes apply to ideas, including cross-breeding, safe-sex, inbreeding, and species.

24 DEC 2013

 The Sensory Desktop

We must take our sensory experiences seriously but not literally. This is one place where the concept of a sensory desktop is helpful. We take the icons on a graphical desktop seriously; we won’t, for instance, carelessly drag an icon to the trash, for fear of losing a valuable file. But we don’t take the colors, shapes, or locations of the icons literally. They are not there to resemble the truth. They are there to facilitate useful behaviors. Sensory desktops differ across species. A ...
Folksonomies: metaphor perception
Folksonomies: metaphor perception
  2  notes

Donald Hoffman on how our sensory perception of the world is like a computer desktop, a representation of things, not how things actually are. We must remember the difference.

19 NOV 2013

 The Selfish Gene as a New Perspective on an Old Hypothesis

The selfish gene theory is Darwin's theory, expressed in a way that Darwin did not choose but whose aptness, I should like to think, he would instantly have recognized and delighted in. It is in fact a logical outgrowth of orthodox neo-Darwinism, but expressed as a novel image. Rather than focus on the individual organism, it takes a gene's-eye view of nature. It is a different way of seeing, not a different theory. In the opening pages of The Extended Phenotype, I explained this using the me...
  1  notes

It is Darwin's theory, but a story told from the gene's point of view.

03 OCT 2013

 A Thought is Like Film Being Exposed Over and Over

A thought is a system, and is inherently conceptual-though often only dimly and confusedly conceptual at the moment of first awareness of the as yet only vaguely describable thinking activity. Because total universe is nonsimultaneous it is not conceptual. Conceptuality is produced by isolation, such as in the instance of one single, static picture held out from a moving-picture film's continuity, or scenario. Universe is an evolutionary-process scenario without beginning or end, because the ...
Folksonomies: metaphor thought
Folksonomies: metaphor thought
  1  notes

Each new exposure layers onto the old, with echoes of the old still faintly visible. The Universe shares this characteristic over time.

30 JUL 2013

 Scientists Read the Book of Nature

IN IMAGINATION there exists the perfect mystery story. Such a story presents all the essential clues, and com- pels us to form our own theory of the case. If we follow the plot carefully, we arrive at the complete solution for ourselves just before the author's disclosure at the end of the book. The solution itself, contrary to those of inferior mysteries, does not disappoint us; more- over, it appears at the very moment we expect it. Can we liken the reader of such a book to the sci...
  1  notes

But unlike a detective novel, they can't flip to the last page and they may not even find an answer.

21 JUN 2012

 Understanding Physics is Like Learning Chess

The physicist is like someone who's watching people playing chess and, after watching a few games, he may have worked out what the moves in the game are. But understanding the rules is just a trivial preliminary on the long route from being a novice to being a grand master. So even if we understand all the laws of physics, then exploring their consequences in the everyday world where complex structures can exist is a far more daunting task, and that's an inexhaustible one I'm sure.
  1  notes

Quoting Sir Martin Rees: Learning the moves is the beginning, but there is still much to learn about the strategy.

18 JUN 2012

 Universe as a Library with Atoms as Words

The words are strung together, with their own special grammar—the laws of quantum theory—to form sentences, which are molecules. Soon we have books, entire libraries, made out of molecular “sentences.” The universe is like a library in which the words are atoms. Just look at what has been written with these hundred words! Our own bodies are books in that library, specified by the organization of molecules—but the universe and literature are organizations of identical, interchangeabl...
  2  notes

And look what has been written with just a hundred words.

11 JUN 2012

 Evolution is Like a Rolling Snowball

Evolution is a blind giant who rolls a snowball down a hill. The ball is made of flakes—circumstances. They contribute to the mass without knowing it. They adhere without intention, and without foreseeing what is to result. When they see the result they marvel at the monster ball and wonder how the contriving of it came to be originally thought out and planned. Whereas there was no such planning, there was only a law: the ball once started, all the circumstances that happened to lie in its ...
Folksonomies: evolution metaphor analogy
Folksonomies: evolution metaphor analogy
  1  notes

With the flakes it picks up being circumstances that amass onto it.

07 JUN 2012

 Research is Like Oil Prospecting

Research is industrial prospecting. The oil prospectors use every scientific means to find new paying wells. Oil is found by each one of a number of methods. My own group of men are prospecting in a different field, using every possible scientific means. We believe there are still things left to be discovered. We have only stumbled upon a few barrels of physical laws from the great pool of knowledge. Some day we are going to hit a gusher.
Folksonomies: metaphor research
Folksonomies: metaphor research
  1  notes

You will strike a new idea somewhere.

06 JUN 2012

 Humanity is Like an Infant

Taking a very gloomy view of the future of the human race, let us suppose that it can only expect to survive for two thousand millions years longer, a period about equal to the past age of the earth. Then, regarded as a being destined to live for three-score years and ten, humanity although it has been born in a house seventy years old, is itself only three days old. But only in the last few minutes has it become conscious that the whole world does not centre round its cradle and its trapping...
Folksonomies: metaphor perspective
Folksonomies: metaphor perspective
  1  notes

In a house 70 years old, but it is only three days old, and starting to see the house around it.

05 JUN 2012

 Rocks Contain Impressions of Irreversible Events

Historical chronology, human or geological, depends... upon comparable impersonal principles. If one scribes with a stylus on a plate of wet clay two marks, the second crossing the first, another person on examining these marks can tell unambiguously which was made first and which second, because the latter event irreversibly disturbs its predecessor. In virtue of the fact that most of the rocks of the earth contain imprints of a succession of such irreversible events, an unambiguous working ...
Folksonomies: metaphor geology
Folksonomies: metaphor geology
  1  notes

Like drawing two strokes on a clay tablet.

05 JUN 2012

 When Metaphors Decieve

Some physiologists will have it that the stomach is a mill; others, that it is a fermenting vat; others, again that it is a stew-pan; but in my view of the matter, it is neither a mill, a fermenting vat nor a stew-pan, but a stomach gentlemen, a stomach.
Folksonomies: metaphor
Folksonomies: metaphor
  1  notes

A great example concerning human physiology.

04 JUN 2012

 The World of the Atom is Alien

It is not surprising that our language should be incapable of describing the processes occurring within the atoms, for, as has been remarked, it was invented to describe the experiences of daily life, and these consists only of processes involving exceedingly large numbers of atoms. Furthermore, it is very difficult to modify our language so that it will be able to describe these atomic processes, for words can only describe things of which we can form mental pictures, and this ability, too, ...
  1  notes

We must satisfy ourselves with metaphors.

04 JUN 2012

 Metaphor for the Spread of Disease

To choose a rough example, think of a thorn which has stuck in a finger and produces an inflammation and suppuration. Should the thorn be discharged with the pus, then the finger of another individual may be pricked with it, and the disease may be produced a second time. In this case it would not be the disease, not even its product, that would be transmitted by the thorn, but rather the stimulus which engendered it. Now supposing that the thorn is capable of multiplying in the sick body, or ...
Folksonomies: metaphor
Folksonomies: metaphor
  1  notes

Like spreading thorns.

04 JUN 2012

 Functions of Analogies and Models in Science

... one of the main functions of an analogy or model is to suggest extensions of the theory by considering extensions of the analogy, since more is known about the analogy than is known about the subject matter of the theory itself … A collection of observable concepts in a purely formal hypothesis suggesting no analogy with anything would consequently not suggest either any directions for its own development.
Folksonomies: metaphor analogy
Folksonomies: metaphor analogy
  1  notes

To inspire ways to extend the analogy.

27 APR 2012

 Edison Describes the Cells that Make Up the Body

What we call man is a mechanism made up of … uncrystallized matter … all the colloid matter of his mechanism is concentrated in a countless number of small cells. … [T]hese cells [are] dwelling places, communes, a walled town within which are many citizens. ... [T]hese are the units of life and when they pass out into space man as we think we know him is dead, a mere machine from which the crew have left,so to speak. ... [T]hese units are endowed with great intelligence. They have memor...
Folksonomies: metaphor biology cells
Folksonomies: metaphor biology cells
  1  notes

Categorizing them into workers in a factory.

24 APR 2012

 Science as a Candle in the Dark

I picture the vast realm of the sciences as an immense landscape scattered with patches of dark and light. The goal towards which we must work is either to extend the boundaries of the patches of light, or to increase their number. One of these tasks falls to the creative genius; the other requires a sort of sagacity combined with perfectionism.
Folksonomies: science metaphor
Folksonomies: science metaphor
 1  1  notes

We must work to extend the patches of light, according to Denis Diderot.

23 MAR 2012

 Metaphor for the Mathematician

The mathematician may be compared to a designer of garments, who is utterly oblivious of the creatures whom his garments may fit. To be sure, his art originated in the necessity for clothing such creatures, but this was long ago; to this day a shape will occasionally appear which will fit into the garment as if the garment had been made for it. Then there is no end of surprise and delight.
  1  notes

As a designer of garments for unknown beings, who delights in learning their shape as they go.

22 MAR 2012

 Metaphor for the Uncertainty Principle

There is a slightly flawed yet very satisfying physical argument that gives some heuristic understanding of the uncertainty principle. Quantum mechanics endows all particles with a wavelike behavior, and waves have one striking property: they are disturbed only when they encounter objects larger than their wavelength (the distance between successive crests). You have only to observe water waves in the ocean to see this behavior explicitly. A pebble protruding from the surface of the water wil...
  2  notes

Krauss explains the principle using waves.

21 MAR 2012

 The Earth as an "Old Warrior"

Our earth is very old, an old warrior that has lived through many battles. Nevertheless, the face of it is still changing, and science sees no certain limit of time for its stately evolution. Our solid earth, apparently so stable, inert, and finished, is changing, mobile, and still evolving. Its major quakings are largely the echoes of that divine far-off event, the building of our noble mountains. The lava floods and intriguing volcanoes tell us of the plasticity, mobility, of the deep inter...
Folksonomies: metaphor earth science
Folksonomies: metaphor earth science
  1  notes

It's many features the weathering on it's face and its scars.

17 MAR 2012

 Shattered Glass as a Metaphor for Taxonomy

Let us suppose that we have laid on the table... [a] piece of glass... and let us homologize this glass to a whole order of plants or birds. Let us hit this glass a blow in such a manner as but to crack it up. The sectors circumscribed by cracks following the first blow may here be understood to represent families. Continuing, we may crack the glass into genera, species and subspecies to the point of finally having the upper right hand corner a piece about 4 inches square representing a sub-s...
Folksonomies: metaphor taxonomy
Folksonomies: metaphor taxonomy
  1  notes

The smaller pieces you smash it into, the more specific the classification. TODO: I don't understand the "4 inches" part at the end concerning sub-species.

30 JAN 2012

 Science as Climbing Mount Everest

The pursuit of science has often been compared to the scaling of mountains, high and not so high. But who amongst us can hope, even in imagination, to scale the Everest and reach its summit when the sky is blue and the air is still, and in the stillness of the air survey the entire Himalayan range in the dazzling white of the snow stretching to infinity? None of us can hope for a comparable vision of nature and of the universe around us. But there is nothing mean or lowly in standing in the v...
Folksonomies: science metaphor
Folksonomies: science metaphor
  1  notes

It is an incredible feat, but there is nothing wrong with sitting in the valley and watching the sun come up over it.

01 JAN 2012

 Sifting Through Photographs of Our Ancestors to See Evolu...

Find a picture of yourself. Now take a picture of your father and place it on top. Then find a picture of his father, your grandfather. Then place on top of that a picture of your grandfather's father, your great-grandfather. You may not have ever met any of your great-grandfathers. I never met any of mine, but I know that one was a country schoolmaster, one a country doctor, one a forester in British India, and one a lawyer, greedy for cream, who died rock-climbing in old age. Still, even if...
  1  notes

A great thought-experiment that takes us all the way back to when our ancestor was a fish, but shows us that the neighbors of any ancestor looked identical.

12 DEC 2011

 M-Theory is a Map

M-theory is not a theory in the usual sense. It is a whole family of different theories, each of which is a good description of observations only in some range of physical situations. It is a bit like a map. As is weU known, one cannot show the whole of the earth's surface on a single map. The usual Mercator projection used for maps of the world makes areas appear larger and larger in the far north and south and doesn't cover the North and South Poles. To faithfully map the entire earth, one ...
  2  notes

Just as there is no single flat map that can describe the Earth's surface, M-Theory is a collection of models that describe the laws of our Universe.

03 SEP 2011

 The Formation of Planets is Like a Snowball Fight

The formation of planets is like a gigantic snowball fight. The balls bounce off, break apart, or stick together, but in the end they are rolled up into one enormous ball, a planet-ball that has gathered up all the snowflakes in the surrounding area.
  1  notes

Eventually a planet ball has gathered up all the snowflakes in the surrounding area.

25 JUL 2011

 Parable of the Scientist as Insect

Those who have handled sciences have been either men of experiment or men of dogmas. The men of experiment are like the ant, they only collect and use; the reasoners resemble spiders, who make cobwebs out of their own substance. But the bee takes a middle course: it gathers its material from the flowers of the garden and of the field, but transforms and digests it by a power of its own. Not unlike this is the true business of philosophy; for it neither relies solely or chiefly on the powers o...
Folksonomies: science metaphor parable
Folksonomies: science metaphor parable
  1  notes

Scientists work like ants, spiders, and bees.

19 JUN 2011

 How Culture Influences Scientific Metaphors

If you believe the cosmos is made up of omelette, you build instruments specifically designed to find traces of intergalactic yolk. In that paradigm you reject phenomena like pulsars and black holes as paranormal garbage. In an omelette cosmos, the beginning of the universe becomes a chicken and egg problem, doesn’t it? Now, this definition of terms (like omelette universe) happens all the time. The reason that we today refer to electricity in terms of current is because in the eighteenth ...
  2  notes

Electricity has a current because Franklin thought it flowed like water, mal-aria is named after "bad air" because people thought it was caused by that, and we define the Universe it terms of clockwork or information depending on the cultural innovations of the time.

20 MAY 2011

 An Origami Metaphor for Fetal Development

The sheets of tissue that fold, invaginate and turn inside out in a developing embryo do indeed grow, and it is that very growth that provides part of the motive force which, in origami, is supplied by the human hand. If you wanted to make an origami model with a sheet of living tissue instead of dead paper, there is at least a sporting chance that, if the sheet were to grow in just the right way, not uniformly but faster in some parts of the sheet than in others, this might automatically cau...
  1  notes

Cells divide and fold into new forms, just as origami structures become other structures through new folds.



References

31 MAY 2015

 The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature

Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Pinker, Steven (2007), The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature, Retrieved on 2015-05-31
Folksonomies: language semantics
Folksonomies: language semantics
 5  
24 JAN 2014

 Ada, the Enchantress of Numbers

Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Toole, Betty Alexandra (2010-10-14), Ada, the Enchantress of Numbers, Betty Alexandra Toole, Retrieved on 2014-01-24
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies:
    Folksonomies:
     1  
    29 DEC 2013

     Mind Performance Hacks

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Hale-Evans, Ron (2006-02-06), Mind Performance Hacks, O'Reilly Media, Inc., Retrieved on 2013-12-29
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: self-help
    Folksonomies: self-help
     11  
    19 DEC 2013

     This Will Make You Smarter

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Brockman , John (2012-02-14), This Will Make You Smarter, HarperCollins, Retrieved on 2013-12-19
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: science
    Folksonomies: science
     52  
    01 OCT 2013

     Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster) and Snyder, Jaime (2008-09-03), Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth, Lars Muller Publishers, Retrieved on 2013-10-01
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  •  14  
    30 JUL 2013

     The Evolution of Physics

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Einstein, Albert and Infeld , Leopold (1971), The Evolution of Physics, CUP Archive, Retrieved on 2013-07-30
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: physics
    Folksonomies: physics
     5  
    21 JUN 2012

     A passion for science

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Wolpert , Lewis (1988), A passion for science, Oxford University Press, USA, Retrieved on 2012-06-21
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies:
    Folksonomies:
     1  
    18 JUN 2012

     he Cosmic Code: Quantum Physics as the Language of Nature

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Pagels , Heinz R. (2011-12-20), he Cosmic Code: Quantum Physics as the Language of Nature , Dover Pubns, Retrieved on 2012-06-18
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  •  1  
    11 JUN 2012

     Tales of wonder

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Twain , Mark and Ketterer , David (2003-03-01), Tales of wonder, Bison Books, Retrieved on 2012-06-11
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: fiction
    Folksonomies: fiction
     1  
    07 JUN 2012

     'Industrial Prospecting', an address to the Founder Socie...

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Kettering, Charles F. (1923), 'Industrial Prospecting', an address to the Founder Societies of Engineers, Reprint and circular series of the National Research Council, Retrieved on 2012-06-07
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  •  1  
    06 JUN 2012

     Eos Or the Wider Aspects of Cosmogony

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Jeans , Sir James Hopwood (1969), Eos Or the Wider Aspects of Cosmogony, Taylor & Francis, Retrieved on 2012-06-06
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  •  2  
    05 JUN 2012

     MS Note From his Lectures

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Hunter, John (1826), MS Note From his Lectures, A treatise on diet, Retrieved on 2012-06-05
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  •  1  
    05 JUN 2012

     'Critique of the Principle of Uniformity

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Hubbert, Marion King (1967), 'Critique of the Principle of Uniformity, Uniformity and Simplicity, Retrieved on 2012-06-05
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  •  1  
    04 JUN 2012

     Operational Definition and Analogy in Physical Theories

    Periodicals>Journal Article:  Hesse, Mary B. ((Feb 1952), Operational Definition and Analogy in Physical Theories, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , Retrieved on 2012-06-04
     1  
    04 JUN 2012

     On Miasmata and Contagia

    Periodicals>Journal Article:  Henle, Friedrich Gustav Jacob de (1938), On Miasmata and Contagia, Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine, Retrieved on 2012-06-04
     1  
    04 JUN 2012

     The physical principles of the quantum theory

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Heisenberg , Werner and Eckart , Carl (1930-06-01), The physical principles of the quantum theory, Dover Pubns, Retrieved on 2012-06-04
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: science
    Folksonomies: science
     1  
    27 APR 2012

     The diary and sundry observations of Thomas Alva Edison

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Edison , Thomas Alva (1968-06), The diary and sundry observations of Thomas Alva Edison, Greenwood Pub Group, Retrieved on 2012-04-27
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies:
    Folksonomies:
     1  
    25 APR 2012

     Infinite in All Directions

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Dyson , Freeman J. (2004-07-22), Infinite in All Directions, Harper Perennial, Retrieved on 2012-04-25
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: religion
    Folksonomies: religion
     50  
    24 APR 2012

     Diderot's Early Philosophical Works

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Diderot, Denis (1911), Diderot's Early Philosophical Works, Retrieved on 2012-04-24
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: philosophy
    Folksonomies: philosophy
     1  
    23 MAR 2012

     Number

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Dantzig , Mazur , Mazur (1930), Number, Plume Books, Retrieved on 2012-03-23
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: mathematics
    Folksonomies: mathematics
     1  
    22 MAR 2012

     The Physics of Star Trek

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Hawking , Stephen and Krauss, Lawrence (2007-07-10), The Physics of Star Trek, Basic Books (AZ), Retrieved on 2012-03-22
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: games
    Folksonomies: games
     15  
    21 MAR 2012

     Our mobile earth

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Daly , Reginald Aldworth (1926), Our mobile earth, Retrieved on 2012-03-21
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: geology earth science
    Folksonomies: geology earth science
     1  
    17 MAR 2012

     Space, time, form

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Croizat , Léon (1962), Space, time, form, Retrieved on 2012-03-17
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: science
    Folksonomies: science
     1  
    30 JAN 2012

     Truth and Beauty: Aesthetics and Motivations in Science

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Chandrasekhar , Subrahmanyan (1990-10-15), Truth and Beauty: Aesthetics and Motivations in Science, University Of Chicago Press, Retrieved on 2012-01-30
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: philosophy
    Folksonomies: philosophy
     1  
    01 JAN 2012

     The Magic of Reality

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Dawkins, Richard (2011-10-04), The Magic of Reality, Simon and Schuster, Retrieved on 2012-01-01
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: science wonder adolescent
    Folksonomies: science wonder adolescent
     15  
    12 DEC 2011

     The Grand Design

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Hawking , Stephen W. and Mlodinow , Leonard (2011-09-01), The Grand Design, Bantam, Retrieved on 2011-12-12
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  •  17  
    03 SEP 2011

     From Stone to Star: A View of Modern Geology

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Allègre , Claude (1994-03-15), From Stone to Star: A View of Modern Geology, Harvard University Press, Retrieved on 2011-09-03
    Folksonomies: geology
    Folksonomies: geology
     1  
    19 JUN 2011

     The Legacy of Science

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book Chapter:  Burke, James (1985), The Legacy of Science, Langley Research Center, Washington, DC, Retrieved on 2011-06-19
  • Source Material [history.nasa.gov]
  • Folksonomies: science society progress
    Folksonomies: science society progress
     9  
    19 MAY 2011

     The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Dawkins, Richard (2010-08-24), The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution, Free Press, Retrieved on 2011-05-19
    Folksonomies: evolution science
    Folksonomies: evolution science
     46  
    17 MAY 2011

     The Novum Organon, or a True Guide to the Interpretation ...

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Bacon , Francis (2005-11-30), The Novum Organon, or a True Guide to the Interpretation of Nature, Adamant Media Corporation, Retrieved on 2011-05-17
  • Source Material [www.constitution.org]
  •  28  
    09 JAN 2011

     The Selfish Gene - First Edition

    Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Dawkins , Richad (1976), The Selfish Gene - First Edition, Oxford, Retrieved on 2007-01-09
     8