27 JUL 2018 by ideonexus

 Fluid Intelligence has Made the Most Gains

So which kinds of intellectual performance have been pushed upward by the better environments of recent decades? Surprisingly, the steepest gains have not been found in the concrete skills that are directly taught in school, such as general knowledge, arithmetic, and vocabulary. They have been found in the abstract, fluid kinds of intelligence, the ones tapped by similarity questions (“What do an hour and a year have in common?”), analogies (“BIRD is to EGG as TREE is to what?”), and ...
Folksonomies: intelligence iq
Folksonomies: intelligence iq
  1  notes
 
31 MAY 2015 by ideonexus

 The Universality of Analogy

This reversibility and this polyvalency endow analogy with a universal field of application. Through it, all the figures in the whole universe can be drawn together. There does exist, however, in this space, furrowed in every direction, one particularly privileged point: it is saturated with analogies (all analogies can find one of their necessary terms there), and as they pass through it, their relations may be inverted without losing any of their force. This point is man: he stands in propo...
Folksonomies: similarity analogy
Folksonomies: similarity analogy
  1  notes
 
03 MAR 2014 by ideonexus

 How to Explain Science

As nearly as I can see, the only secret in popularising science (or anything else) is remembering what thinking went on in your head when you first really understood whatever it is you're now explaining: especially (1) what misunderstandings needed to be cleared away, (2) what metaphors and analogies proved helpful, and (3) what reassurance had to be offered. The effort involved is slight, the benefits great. Among the potential pitfalls are oversimplification, the need to be sparing w...
  1  notes

Remember what was going on in your head when you first understood the thing.

06 JUN 2012 by ideonexus

 Find Analogies Between Different Branches of Science

Whoever wishes to acquire a deep acquaintance with Nature must observe that there are analogies which connect whole branches of science in a parallel manner, and enable us to infer of one class of phenomena what we know of another. It has thus happened on several occasions that the discovery of an unsuspected analogy between two branches of knowledge has been the starting point for a rapid course of discovery.
Folksonomies: discovery
Folksonomies: discovery
  1  notes

From there, discoveries will amass.

04 JUN 2012 by ideonexus

 Functions of Analogies and Models in Science

... one of the main functions of an analogy or model is to suggest extensions of the theory by considering extensions of the analogy, since more is known about the analogy than is known about the subject matter of the theory itself … A collection of observable concepts in a purely formal hypothesis suggesting no analogy with anything would consequently not suggest either any directions for its own development.
Folksonomies: metaphor analogy
Folksonomies: metaphor analogy
  1  notes

To inspire ways to extend the analogy.

30 MAY 2012 by ideonexus

 There is No Rule to New Knowledge

In no subject is there a rule, compliance with which will lead to new knowledge or better understanding. Skilful observations, ingenious ideas, cunning tricks, daring suggestions, laborious calculations, all these may be required to advance a subject. Occasionally the conventional approach in a subject has to be studiously followed; on other occasions it has to be ruthlessly disregarded. Which of these methods, or in what order they should be employed is generally unpredictable. Analogies dra...
Folksonomies: knowledge exploration
Folksonomies: knowledge exploration
  1  notes

You must be creative in your investigations.

02 JAN 2012 by ideonexus

 The Mental Power of Thinking Through Chemistry

Whilst chemical pursuits exalt the understanding, they do not depress the imagination or weaken genuine feeling; whilst they give the mind habits of accuracy, by obliging it to attend to facts, they like wise extend its analogies; and, though conversant with the minute forms of things, they have for their ultimate end the great and magnificent objects of Nature … And hence they are wonderfully suited to the progressive nature of the human intellect … It may be said of modern chemistry, th...
Folksonomies: chemistry virtue
Folksonomies: chemistry virtue
  1  notes

Become "conversant with the minute forms of things" and in a practical sense.

18 MAY 2011 by ideonexus

 Scientists Must Practice Communicating Science

Why should it be hard for scientists to get science across? Some scientists, including some very good ones, tell me they'd love to popularize, but feel they lack talent in this area. Knowing and explaining, they say, are not the same thing. What's the secret? There's only one, I think: don't talk to the general audience as you would to your scientific colleagues. There are terms that convey your meaning instantly and accurately to fellow experts. You may parse these phrases every day in your...
  1  notes

And apply the scientific method to their efforts to determine what works.

03 MAY 2011 by ideonexus

 The Tangled Bank Theory

Michael Ghiselin developed this idea further in 1974 and made some telling analogies with economic trends. As Ghiselin put it, "In a saturated economy, it pays to diversify." Ghiselin suggested that most creatures compete with their brothers and sisters, so if everybody is a little different from their brothers and sisters, then more can survive. The fact that your parents thrived doing one thing means that it will probably pay to do something else because the local habitat might well be full...
  1  notes

"In a saturated economy, it pays to diversify."