# Five Strands of Mathematical Literacy

Recognizing that no term captures completely all aspects of expertise, competence,
knowledge, and facility in mathematics, we have chosen *mathematical proficiency* to capture what we think it means for anyone to learn mathematicssuccessfully. Mathematical proficiency, as we see it, has five strands:

• *conceptual understanding*—comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations, and relations

• *procedural fluency*—skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently, and appropriately

• *strategic competence*—ability to formulate, represent, and solve mathematical problems

• *adaptive reasoning*—capacity for logical thought, reflection, explanation, and justification

• *productive disposition*—habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy.

## Notes:

Cognitive tools.

**Folksonomies:** education mathematics

**Taxonomies:**

/science/mathematics (0.697682)

/religion and spirituality/christianity/protestantism (0.439808)

/technology and computing (0.214393)

**Keywords:**

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**Entities:**

Mathematical Literacy Cognitive:PrintMedia (0.938359 (neutral:0.000000))

**Concepts:**

Critical thinking (0.957412): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc | yago

Cognition (0.947195): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc

Logic (0.914328): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc

Thought (0.864335): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc

Mathematics (0.854755): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc

Knowledge (0.830161): dbpedia | freebase

Truth (0.782063): dbpedia | freebase

Epistemology (0.754457): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc

**Adding It Up**

**Books, Brochures, and Chapters>**

**Book:**Committee, Education, Education, Council (2001-11-27)

*, Adding It Up*, National Academies Press, Retrieved on 2014-04-21

**Folksonomies:**education