Heat Makes Solids Fluids and Fluids Gases

The opinion I formed from attentive observation of the facts and phenomena, is as follows. When ice, for example, or any other solid substance, is changing into a fluid by heat, I am of opinion that it receives a much greater quantity of heat than that what is perceptible in it immediately after by the thermometer. A great quantity of heat enters into it, on this occasion, without making it apparently warmer, when tried by that instrument. This heat, however, must be thrown into it, in order to give it the form of a fluid; and I affirm, that this great addition of heat is the principal, and most immediate cause of the fluidity induced. And, on the other hand, when we deprive such a body of its fluidity again, by a diminution of its heat, a very great quantity of heat comes out of it, while it is assuming a solid form, the loss of which heat is not to be perceived by the common manner of using the thermometer. The apparent heat of the body, as measured by that instrument, is not diminished, or not in proportion to the loss of heat which the body actually gives out on this occasion; and it appears from a number of facts, that the state of solidity cannot be induced without the abstraction of this great quantity of heat. And this confirms the opinion, that this quantity of heat, absorbed, and, as it were, concealed in the composition of fluids, is the most necessary and immediate cause of their fluidity.


Black believes there is more heat going into ice that turns to water than is registered on a thermometer.

Folksonomies: energy heat solid liquid state of matter gas

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Fluids Gases Black:Company (0.881052 (negative:-0.298223)), principal:JobTitle (0.573840 (positive:0.547532))

Solid (0.960369): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc
Liquid (0.830849): dbpedia | freebase
Ice (0.703233): dbpedia | freebase
Temperature (0.702929): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc
Gas (0.555765): dbpedia | freebase
Solid modeling (0.553926): dbpedia | freebase
Solids (0.521501): dbpedia
Ontology (0.514339): dbpedia | freebase | opencyc

 Lectures on the elements of chemistry
Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Black , Joseph (1806), Lectures on the elements of chemistry, Retrieved on 2012-01-15
  • Source Material [books.google.com]
  • Folksonomies: chemistry