10 MAR 2017 by ideonexus

 Longest Ever Personality Study Finds No Correlation Betwe...

There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) complet...
Folksonomies: psychology personality
Folksonomies: psychology personality
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Suggests that we are not the same person as adults as we were as a youth in any way.

26 FEB 2015 by ideonexus

 Confirmation Bias

Numerous studies have demonstrated that people generally give an excessive amount of value to confirmatory information, that is, to positive or supportive data. The "most likely reason for the excessive influence of confirmatory information is that it is easier to deal with cognitively" (Gilovich 1993). It is much easier to see how a piece of data supports a position than it is to see how it might count against the position. Consider a typical ESP experiment or a seemingly clairvoyant dream: ...
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07 FEB 2014 by ideonexus

 Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)

The goal of this new manual, as with all previous editions, is to provide a common language for describing psychopathology. While DSM has been described as a “Bible” for the field, it is, at best, a dictionary, creating a set of labels and defining each. The strength of each of the editions of DSM has been “reliability” – each edition has ensured that clinicians use the same terms in the same ways. The weakness is its lack of validity. Unlike our definitions of ischemic heart diseas...
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DSM to be replaced with a matrix of quantifiable measures.

14 OCT 2013 by ideonexus

 The Inferiority Complex Fad

But nowhere was the need to appear self-assured more apparent than in a new concept in psychology called the inferiority complex. The IC, as it became known in the popular press, was developed in the 1920s by a Viennese psychologist named Alfred Adler to describe feelings of inadequacy and their consequences. “Do you feel insecure?” inquired the cover of Adler’s best-selling book, Understanding Human Nature. “Are you fainthearted? Are you submissive?” Adler explained that all infant...
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Another fashionable mental disorder from the past.

27 JUN 2013 by ideonexus

 Psychology Studies Sample WEIRD Humans

[This paper is] about another exotic group: people from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic (WEIRD)societies. In particular, it’s about the Western, and more specifically American, undergraduates who form the bulk of the database in the experimental branches of psychology, cognitive science, and economics, as well as allied fields(labeled the “behavioral sciences”). [...] Who are the people studied in behavioral science research? A recent analysis of the top journa...
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A culture not representative of the species.

10 JUN 2013 by ideonexus

 Questioning the Milgram Experiment

It appeared that sixty-five percent of people would torture someone to death, if pressured to do so. The results made their way into both psychology and cocktail party conversation. But were they correct? At least one woman doesn't think so. Gina Perry, for her book, Behind the Shock Machine, traced as many participants in the Milgram experiment as she could, and re-examined the notes of the experiment. Milgram claimed that seventy-five percent of the participants believed in the reality of t...
Folksonomies: psychology ethics
Folksonomies: psychology ethics
  1  notes

These questions raise an even greater objection to the validity of the experiment. If the results cannot be reproduced, because the experiment was unethical, then we shouldn't cite it a evidence of anything every. Science demands reproducible results, and without replication we do not have evidence.

11 MAY 2013 by ideonexus

 The Problem with the DSM

Currently, diagnosis in mental disorders is based on clinical observation and patients’ phenomenological symptom reports. This system, implemented with the innovative Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-III (DSM-III) in 1980 and refined in the current DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision), has served well to improve diagnostic reliability in both clinical practice and research. The diagnostic categories represented in the DSM-IV and the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10, containing virt...
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By clustering symptoms into categories of mental illness, we are treating symptoms, not underlying causes.

02 MAY 2013 by ideonexus

 Stand Alone Complex

Laughing Man: Who knew that copies could still be produced despite the absence of the original? If you had to give a name to this phenomenon, what would you label it? Motoko: It would be "Stand Alone Complex" Laughing Man: Yes, it's the stand alone complex. From the start the very nature of our current social system has contained the mechanisms to trigger such an amazing occurrence. Personally however, I feel this marks the beginning of a new era of despair. What's your opinion? Motoko: I ...
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The concept of many people getting the same idea, giving the appearance of either coordination or copycat behavior, but there is no originating even to copy.

17 MAY 2012 by ideonexus

 The Third Blow to Man's Ego

In the course of centuries the naïve self-love of men has had to submit to two major blows at the hands of science. The first was when they learnt that our earth was not the centre of the universe but only a tiny fragment of a cosmic system of scarcely imaginable vastness... the second blow fell when biological research destroyed man's supposedly privileged place in creation and proved his descent from the animal kingdom and his ineradicable animal nature… But human megalomania will have s...
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Not the center of the Universe, not above the animals, and now not even in control of his own mind.

23 APR 2012 by ideonexus

 Study in Silence to Improve Context-Sensitive Memory Reca...

Context-dependency eects on memory for lists of unrelated words have been shown more often with recall than with recognition. Context dependency for meaningful text material was examined using two standard academic testing techniques: short answer (recall) and multiple choice (recognition). Forty participants read an article in either silent or noisy conditions; their reading comprehension was assessed with both types of test under silent or noisy conditions. Both tests showed context-depende...
Folksonomies: psychology studying memory
Folksonomies: psychology studying memory
  1  notes

Because memory is context-sensitive, with it being easier to recall memories when immersed in the same environmental stimuli in which they were recorded, it is better to study in silence because exams are given in silent environments.