21 SEP 2011 by ideonexus

 Evolution of Lactose Tolerance

One case involves our ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk. An enzyme called lactase breaks down this sugar into the more easily absorbed sugars glucose and galactose. We are born with the ability to digest milk, of course, for that’s always been the main food of infants. But after we’re weaned, we gradually stop producing lactase. Eventually, many of us entirely lose our ability to digest lactose, becoming “lactose intolerant” and prone to diarrhea, bloating, and cramps a...
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Some groups of humans evolved the ability to digest milk beyond infancy as their societies domesticated cows.

20 SEP 2011 by ideonexus

 Postmating Competition

Sexual selection doesn’t end with the sex act itself: males can continue to compete even after mating. In many species, females mate with more than one male over a short period of time. After a male inseminates a female, how can he prevent other males from fertilizing her and stealing his paternity? This postmating competition has produced some of the most intriguing features built by sexual selection. Sometimes a male hangs around after mating, guarding his female against other suitors. Wh...
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Various evolutionary strategies males of different species keep a female from mating with other males after sex.