02 MAR 2021 by ideonexus

 Don't Let the Simulation's Beauty Convince You It's Real

The architecture faculty who designed Project Athena’s Garden dreamed of transparent understanding of design process; today scientists are reconciled to opacity and seeing only a CAVE’s shadows. Over the past twenty years, simulation has introduced its dazzling environments and we have been witness to our own seduction. A mechanical engineer instructs his students: “Don’t be fooled by the graphics.”17 Luft says that beautiful codes promote the “illusion of doing really great scien...
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
  1  notes
 
02 MAR 2021 by ideonexus

 Loss of Legacy Programmers Means Loss of Systems Understa...

At Livermore, a legendary senior weapons designer is about to retire. At the Spring 2005 MIT workshop, his colleagues discuss this retirement and refer to it as “a blow.” They are anxious about more than the loss of one man’s ability to make individual scientific contributions. He has irreplaceable knowledge about the programming that supports current practice.10 His colleagues fret: “He has such a great memory that he hasn’t written down lots of important stuff. How will people kno...
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
  1  notes

The newer users only know the interface, the abstraction, they don't know the code beneath it.

02 MAR 2021 by ideonexus

 Where's Transparency With So Many Layers of Abstraction?

Some older scientists, for example, justify their use of opaque software by pointing to the infinite regress of computer representations. After all, they argue, it doesn’t really mean much to know how your simulation is programmed if all you are looking at is a high- level computer language. The “real guts” of the program is in assembly language and in all that lies beneath that, and no one wants to go to that level with today’s complex machines. In the 1980s, Professor Barry Nilo= in...
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
  1  notes
 
02 MAR 2021 by ideonexus

 The Danger of Black-Box Abstraction

When I was a graduate student, if you were going to convert some data or something like that, you would write the FORTRAN code to convert the data yourself. That’s how you would do it. Now there are these programs. There are these windows and you click. I .nd with my students all the time, they don’t know why something isn’t working. I’m like, well, did the data convert properly? Open the .le and look at it. It is so black box and it is going from the time when you knew how the data w...
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
  1  notes
 
02 MAR 2021 by ideonexus

 Top-Down VS Bottom-Up Approaches to Design in Software

One of the hallmarks of the Athena project was that faculty were asked to build their own educational software. Most worked with a set of assumptions about learning: students begin by learning “fundamental concepts”; formal, mathematical representation is always the best approach; students would use simulations the way designers intended. As Athena unfolded, none of these assumptions proved true. To begin with, students approached simulation with a wide range of personal intellectual styl...
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
  1  notes
 
02 MAR 2021 by ideonexus

 Students Reliant on Computer Simulations Lack the Technic...

In the 1980s, alternate visions of computers and the future of design were expressed in competing views about programming. Some architects believed that designers needed to learn advanced programming. If designers did not understand how their tools were constructed, they would not only be dependent on computer experts but less likely to challenge screen realities. Other architects disagreed. They argued that, in the future, creativity would not depend on understanding one’s tools but on usi...
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
Folksonomies: abstraction simulation
  1  notes
 
28 FEB 2021 by ideonexus

 Humanity is Fortunate to Have a Variety of Energy Sources...

Humanity is fortunate in having such a variety of energy resources at its disposal. In the very long run we shall need energy that is unpolluting; we shall have sunlight. In the fairly long run we shall need energy that is inexhaustible and moderately clean; we shall have deuterium. In the short run we shall need energy that is readily usable and abundant; we shall have uranium. Right now we need energy that is cheap and convenient; we have coal and oil. Nature has been kinder to us than we h...
Folksonomies: humanity energy
Folksonomies: humanity energy
  1  notes
 
28 FEB 2021 by ideonexus

 Gravity is Energy

The laws of thermodynamics decree that each quantity of en^rgy has a characteristic quaUty called entropy associated with it. The entropy measures the degree of disorder associated with the energy. Energy must always flow in such a direction that the entropy increases. Thus, we can arrange the different forms of energy in an "order of merit," the highest form being the one with the least disorder or entropy. Energy of a higher form can be degraded into a lower form, but a lower form can never...
Folksonomies: entropy energy
Folksonomies: entropy energy
  1  notes
 
28 FEB 2021 by ideonexus

 Evolutionary Origins of Play

There are several kinds of speculation about the origins of play: (a) The first holds that play originates as a mutation and therefore an amelioration of dangerous adaptational conJicts. According to John Allman in Evolving Brains, this play mutation constitutes a pre-existing genetic function. (b) Some scholars claim the most fundamental conJict arises between dangerous and mutually threatening opponents. In studies of such conJicts, 80 percent of the time creatures from ants to mammals ac...
Folksonomies: evolution play
Folksonomies: evolution play
  1  notes
 
28 FEB 2021 by ideonexus

 Adults Fear Leisure Because They Lose Control of the Cult...

In part, adults feared youth leisure because it symbolized rapid change and the inability of parents to control the culture of their o1spring, which seemed to be dominated by commercial entertainment. Commercialized youth leisure grew impressively during and after World War II. Parents away as soldiers or o1 at work lost control over their o1spring, and increased afluence encouraged commercialized play. In the 1950s, new technologies like the 45 rpm record and the transistor radio were quickl...
Folksonomies: culture parenting
Folksonomies: culture parenting
  1  notes