Books, Brochures, and Chapters>Book:  Ward , Peter Douglas and Brownlee , Donald (2003-12-10), Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe, Springer, Retrieved on 2011-12-15
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    15 DEC 2011

     If Life Can Exist in Sea Vents, Then It Can Exist Elsewhe...

    The fact that this chain of life existed [at volcanic vents on the seafloor] in the black cold of the deep sea and was utterly independent of sunlight—previously thought to be the font of all Earth's life—has startling ramifications. If life could flourish there, nurtured by a complex chemical process based on geothermal heat, then life could exist under similar conditions on planets far removed from the nurturing light of our parent star, the Sun.
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    Increasing the range of places life can occur in the universe.