16 APR 2018 by ideonexus

 Video Game Violence is Not Violence

In the 1960s, as Bandura conducted his media effects research, the British folklorists lona and Peter Opie spent years observing and studying children's outdoor play. They watched children play games—many of them made up—with names like Underground Tig and Witches in the Gluepots and concluded, "A true game is one that frees the spirit. It allows no cares but those fictitious ones engendered by the game itself." When children commit to the games, they opt out of the ordinary world and "th...
Folksonomies: gaming violence
Folksonomies: gaming violence
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20 JAN 2014 by ideonexus

 IDIC - Infinite Diversity in Infinite Combinations

IDIC basically states that we should delight in the differences amongst people, not hate people because they are different. It seems that the human race has found a large number of ways to hate (different sex, color, religion, nationality, political party, social class, etc) and has emphasized hate over co-operation, caring, and compassion. The result has been a world torn by big and small wars, religious and philosophical differences, and alienation of one person from another. This has take...
Folksonomies: diversity tolerance
Folksonomies: diversity tolerance
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A good overview of the Vulcan philosophy from Star Trek.

27 AUG 2012 by ideonexus

 An Early Passage on Taxonomy

NATURE, by descending gradually from great to small, from strong to weak, coun|terbalances every part of her works. Attentive solely to the preservation of each species, she creates a profusion of individuals, and supports by numbers the small and the feeble, whom she hath left unprovided with arms or with courage. She has not only put those inferior animals in a condition to perpetuate and to resist by their own numbers, but she seems, at the same time, to have afforded a supply to each by m...
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The ability to distinguish and categorize species based on more and more minute differences, and yet be able to group them into larger categories as well.

11 JUN 2012 by ideonexus

 Language is Alive

Language is simply alive, like an organism. We all tell each other this, in fact, when we speak of living languages, and I think we mean something more than an abstract metaphor. We mean alive. Words are the cells of language, moving the great body, on legs. Language grows and evolves, leaving fossils behind. The individual words are like different species of animals. Mutations occur. Words fuse, and then mate. Hybrid words and wild varieties or compound words are the progeny. Some mixed word...
Folksonomies: evolution language
Folksonomies: evolution language
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It evolves, leaves fossils, speciates, etc.

03 JAN 2012 by ideonexus

 Applied History of Technology

Ravna had known that “jumpstarting” technology must be a topic in the ship’s library. It turned out the subject was a major academic specialty. Besides ten thousand case studies, there were customizing programs and lots of very dull-looking theory. Though the “rediscovery problem” was trivial in the Beyond, down in the Slow Zone almost every conceivable combination of events had happened. Civilizations in the Slowness could not last more than a few thousand years. Their collapse was...
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An academic field for a galactic civilization in which they study the technological advancement of different species on different planets. Includes the concept of "jumpstarting," where a civilization is given more advanced technology, similar to the concept of "leapfrogging" for third world countries on Earth.

21 SEP 2011 by ideonexus

 Barriers that Keep Different Species from Interbreeding

What keeps members of two related species from mating with each other? There are many different reproductive barriers. Species might not interbreed simply because their mating or flowering seasons don’t overlap. Some corals, for example, reproduce only one night a year, spewing out masses of eggs and sperm into the sea over a several-hour period. Closely related species living in the same area remain distinct because their peak spawning periods are several hours apart, preventing eggs of on...
Folksonomies: biology species breeding
Folksonomies: biology species breeding
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Different pheremones, blooming times, geographical isolation can keep members of two different species from breeding.

21 SEP 2011 by ideonexus

 The Biological Species Concept (BSC)

And when we think of why we feel that brown-eyed and blue-eyed humans, or Inuit and !Kung, are members of the same species, we realize that it’s because they can mate with each other and produce offspring that contain combinations of their genes. In other words, they belong to the same gene pool. When you ponder cryptic species, and variation within humans, you arrive at the notion that species are distinct not merely because they look different, but because there are barriers between them ...
Folksonomies: biology definitions species
Folksonomies: biology definitions species
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A species is defined by the fact that its members can breed with one another.

20 SEP 2011 by ideonexus

 Postmating Competition

Sexual selection doesn’t end with the sex act itself: males can continue to compete even after mating. In many species, females mate with more than one male over a short period of time. After a male inseminates a female, how can he prevent other males from fertilizing her and stealing his paternity? This postmating competition has produced some of the most intriguing features built by sexual selection. Sometimes a male hangs around after mating, guarding his female against other suitors. Wh...
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Various evolutionary strategies males of different species keep a female from mating with other males after sex.

20 SEP 2011 by ideonexus

 Speciesization in a Test Tube

We can even see the origin of new, ecologically diverse bacterial species, all within a single laboratory flask. Paul Rainey and his colleagues at Oxford University placed a strain of the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens in a small vessel containing nutrient broth, and simply watched it. (It’s surprising but true that such a vessel actually contains diverse environments. Oxygen concentration, for example, is highest on the top and lowest on the bottom.) Within ten days—no more than a few ...
Folksonomies: evolution experiment
Folksonomies: evolution experiment
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Bacteria evolve into different species in order to adapt to the different environments at the bottom and top of a test tube.

16 SEP 2011 by ideonexus

 Convergent Evolution in Mammals and Marsupials

The most famous example of different species filling similar roles involves the marsupial mammals, now found mainly in Australia (the Virginia opossum is a familiar exception), and placental mammals, which predominate elsewhere in the world. The two groups show important anatomical differences, most notably in their reproductive systems (almost all marsupials have pouches and give birth to very undeveloped young, while placentals have placentas that enable young to be born at a more advanced ...
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Although they have very different reproductive strategies, the two groups have many parallels in species adapted to the same environments.