12 JAN 2018 by ideonexus

 Neurons Use Viruses to Share Information and Learn

When genes are activated, the instructions encoded within their DNA are first transcribed into a related molecule called RNA. Shepherd’s colleague Elissa Pastuzyn showed that the Arc shells can enclose RNA and move it from one neuron to another. And that’s basically what retroviruses do—they use protein shells to protect their own RNA as it moves between cells in a host. So our neurons use a repurposed viral gene to transmit genetic information between each other in an oddly virus-like...
Folksonomies: dna neurons virus microbiology
Folksonomies: dna neurons virus microbiology
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21 APR 2014 by ideonexus

 Red Queen Hypothesis of Computer Viruses

We know, historically, that the "walled garden" approach can have benefits during the early adopter phase. AOL's walled garden provided parental controls, security and organization of online content that was useful to introduce the Internet to mass adoption. But, as we know from IBM, AOL, Microsoft, Apple, etc., keeping the walls too high or for too long can hurt the relationship with consumers, distribution partners and other market participants. The day will come when viruses and other mal...
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Computer viruses force or IS to evolve.

29 NOV 2013 by ideonexus

 We are Machines that Carry Genes

We are survival machines, but 'we' does not mean just people. It embraces all animals, plants, bacteria, and viruses. The total number of survival machines on earth is very difficult to count and even the total number of species is unknown. Taking just insects alone, the number of living species has been estimated at around three million, and the number of individual insects may be a million million million. Different sorts of survival machine appear very varied on the outside and in their i...
Folksonomies: evolution genes
Folksonomies: evolution genes
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The Gene's-eye view of evolution is very useful.

20 JUN 2013 by ideonexus

 Relative Sizes of Structures in the Brain

Linear measure- ments and dimensions generally are given in microns or micrometers (µm) (1 µm equals one- millionth of a meter) or nanometers (nm) (1 nm or millimicron equals one-billionth of a meter). About 240,000 µm equal one inch. As a reference, the following are the dimen- sions of some non-neural structures: human ovum, 100 µm; cross-section of a skeletal muscle fiber, 10-100 µm; erythrocytes, 8–10 µm; bacteria, 0.1–8 µm; and viruses, 0.15–0.5 µm. Cell bodies of neurons...
Folksonomies: size neurology microscopy
Folksonomies: size neurology microscopy
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Interesting to see how they compare to the sizes of other small objects.

08 JUN 2012 by ideonexus

 Parasites are Always Out There, Waiting

But however secure and well-regulated civilized life may become, bacteria, Protozoa, viruses, infected fleas, lice, ticks, mosquitoes, and bedbugs will always lurk in the shadows ready to pounce when neglect, poverty, famine, or war lets down the defenses.
Folksonomies: parasites disease
Folksonomies: parasites disease
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We must be ever-vigilant.

08 JUN 2012 by ideonexus

 One Half of DNA is Parasitic

Parasites are not only incredibly diverse; they are also incredibly successful. There are parasitic stretches of DNA in your own genes, some of which are called retrotransposons. Many of the parasitic stretches were originally viruses that entered our DNA. Most of them don't do us any harm. They just copy and insert themselves in other parts of our DNA, basically replicating themselves. Sometimes they hop into other species and replicate themselves in a new host. According to one estimate, ro...
Folksonomies: evolution genetics dna viruses
Folksonomies: evolution genetics dna viruses
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This doesn't sound right to me, but the claim is that Viruses have inserted so much DNA into our genomes.

04 JAN 2012 by ideonexus

 Organic Chemists Merely Increase the Probability of Results

It is, I believe, justifiable to make the generalization that anything an organic chemist can synthesize can be made without him. All he does is increase the probability that given reactions will 'go.' So it is quite reasonable to assume that given sufficient time and proper conditions, nucleotides, amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids will arise by reactions that, though less probable, are as inevitable as those by which the organic chemist fulfills his predictions. So why not self-dupli...
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In nature, with enough time and proper conditions, the results would happen eventually without him, including self-duplicating molecular systems like viruses.

04 MAY 2011 by ideonexus

 More Exciting Than the Supernatural

And yet there's so much in real science that's equally exciting, more mysterious, a greater intellectual challenge - as well as being a lot closer to the truth. Did he know about the molecular building blocks of life sitting out there in the cold, tenuous gas between the stars? Had he heard of the footprints of our ancestors found in 4-million-year-old volcanic ash? What about the raising of the Himalayas when India went crashing into Asia? Or how viruses, built like hypodermic syringes, slip...
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There are wonders in science far more amazing than the ideas presented in superstition.

05 APR 2011 by ideonexus

 The Many Ways the Universe Observes Itself

On this planet, and probably countless more, inanimate atoms became molecules which formed cells and over billions of years those cells evolved into complex organisms which finally became viruses, plants, animals, salamanders, banyan trees and human beings. Without giving it any thought, with no way to think it, the universe brought into existence a way of making itself seen. There is more than one way to see. A leaf turns to the light. A chimpanzee selects a piece of fruit. A fish sees a sm...
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The Universe, without consciousness, evolved living things with consciousness and the ability to experience the Universe in a multitude of ways.

29 MAR 2011 by ideonexus

 Requirements for a Science Bible

Creating a permanent record of our civilization may not be as difficult as we imagine. What we need is a primer on science, clearly written and unambiguous in its meaning—a primer for anyone interested in the state of the Earth and how to survive and live well on it. One that would serve also as a primary school science text. It would be the scientific equivalent of the Bible. It would contain practical information such as how to light a fire, and things to wonder about when it was lit. It ...
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What are some of the most basic and important things that would need to go into a completely introductory book on Science?